The world has watched with horror as bushfires have torn across Australia, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake.
The blazes have razed almost 2,000 homes, and killed at least 25 people and hundreds of millions of animals since they began in September.
People in Australia and abroad, including politicians and celebrities, have been eager to find ways to offer assistance and support.
But authorities have warned that some kinds of help can actually be a hindrance and overwhelm fire-affected communities.
Here are some of the ways that the world has responded to Australia’s bushfire crisis, and what help those responding to the crisis say is needed.
Many people have made financial donations to help with the response to the crisis.
One fundraiser for fire services in New South Wales (NSW), launched by Australian comedian Celeste Barber, raised more than A$20m (£10.6m; $13m) in just 48 hours. It’s now topped A$30m, with donations from more than 1.1 million people.
Big business in Australia has also pledged significant contributions.
Some of the biggest sums offered to the relief efforts have come from celebrities.
US singer Pink, Australian pop star Kylie Minogue, Oscar-winning actress Nicole Kidman, British singer Elton John and Australian actor Chris Hemsworth are among those to make major donations.
The Prince of Wales has said he and the Duchess of Cornwall have been “in despair” watching the “appalling horror” unfold.
In a video posted on the Clarence House Twitter account on Tuesday, Prince Charles praised the work of firefighters and hailed the resilience of Australians facing “such impossible and terrifying circumstances”.
Others have taken a more unusual approach.
Australian cricket great Shane Warne was set to raise more than A$300,000 for the Australian Red Cross Disaster Relief and Recovery Fund by auctioning off his prized “baggy green” Test cap.
British actress Phoebe Waller-Bridge, meanwhile, said she would auction off the suit she wore to the Golden Globes to raise money for relief efforts.
Australian tennis player Nick Kyrgios, known for his powerful serve, said he would donate A$200 for every ace he hit at every tournament he entered in January.
He wasn’t the only tennis player to chip in. Ashleigh Barty, the Australian world number one, said she would donate all her prize money from the Brisbane International – which offers a pot of nearly A$1.5m. Maria Sharapova said on Twitter she would donate A$25,000, and Novak Djokovic later matched the pledge.
And then there’s the California-based Instagram model Kaylen Ward, who claimed to have raised more than half a million dollars by offering nude photos of herself in exchange for proof of charitable donations.
Food and goods
Fire-ravaged communities have also been inundated with donations of toys, food, clothes and furniture. But officials have warned that such generosity can sometimes cause problems.
A spokesman for the state of New South Wales’ Office of Emergency Management (OEM) said the deluge of goods could potentially spark a “second disaster”.
“Unfortunately, what usually happens is local communities become overwhelmed very quickly with donated goods,” Jeremy Hillman told broadcaster ABC, adding that donations can clog up halls used for recovery meetings.
Officials said communities in Victoria had the same problem – and that those wanting to help should do so financially, whether through donations or direct spending in affected towns.
“We do not need any more food, we do not need any more clothes. Give money… support the local businesses and the communities,” the state’s Police and Emergency Services Minister Lisa Neville was reported as saying.
Thousands of social media users have called on people to travel to fire-affected areas once the blazes are over.
Using the hashtag #GoWithEmptyEskies, referring to portable coolers, they are urging people to spend money on hotels, food, fuel, drink and other supplies to help rebuild local economies in the wake of the crisis.
“Go with empty eskies, empty cars and low fuel… Beyond rebuilding, they need continued and long term support to get back on their feet and your empty esky makes more of a difference than you could ever imagine,” said a Facebook post, which has been shared more than 36,000 times.
Messages of support
Actors Russell Crowe and Cate Blanchett used their Golden Globes speeches to highlight Australia’s bushfire crisis and climate change.
“When one country is facing a climate disaster, we are all facing a climate disaster,” Blanchett said.
Many celebrities have posted statements on social media, urging their followers to make donations.
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Australian actress Margot Robbie posted an emotional appeal on Instagram, sharing pictures of her childhood to show “how beautiful our country is”.
World leaders have also offered their support. French President Emmanuel Macron, US President Donald Trump and UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson were among those to call Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison to express solidarity.
Fijian Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama said he had written to Mr Morrison offer assistance “in any way we can”.
Members of the Royal Family said their “thoughts and prayers” were with those affected by the massive fires.
Extra firefighters and troops
Most of those battling Australia’s fires are unpaid volunteers, thousands of people who have given up their time and risked their lives to help deal with the crisis.
“We’re doing it because it’s a passion, it’s a brotherhood,” one volunteer firefighter told the BBC.
Many countries have offered assistance, including firefighters, helicopters, troops and money.
In a tweet, Mr Morrison thanked the US, New Zealand, Canada and Singapore for their support on the ground.
The tiny Pacific island nation of Vanuatu pledged almost A$250,000 to “assist bushfire victims”. Acting Prime Minister Jotham Napat described Australia as a “Pacific neighbour and friend” and said Vanuatu would “offer whatever assistance we can in this time of need, as Australia has always done in ours”.
Papua New Guinea Prime Minister James Marape said about 1,000 soldiers and firefighters “stand ready to be deployed” at Mr Morrison’s invitation.
People around the world have also been knitting blankets and protective pouches for animals which have lost their homes in the crisis.
The Animal Rescue Craft Guild told Reuters news agency it had been inundated with offers to make items including bat wraps, koala mitten and animal beds.
On the guild’s Facebook page, people from countries including Canada, the US and UK posted messages about their efforts.
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